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Inhibition of RNA Polymerase I Transcription Activates Targeted DNA Damage Response and Enhances the Efficacy of PARP Inhibitors in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
May 02, 2019
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for the majority of ovarian cancer and has a dismal prognosis. PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have revolutionized disease management of patients with homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair-deficient HGSOC. However, acquired resistance to PARPi by complex mechanisms including HR restoration and stabilisation of replication forks is a major challenge in the clinic. Here, we demonstrate CX-5461, an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), induces replication stress at rDNA leading to activation of DNA damage response and DNA damage involving MRE11-dependent degradation of replication forks. CX-5461 cooperates with PARPi in exacerbating DNA damage and enhances synthetic lethal interactions of PARPi with HR deficiency in HGSOC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) in vivo. We demonstrate CX-5461 has a different sensitivity spectrum to PARPi and destabilises replication forks irrespective of HR pathway status, overcoming two well-known mechanisms of resistance to PARPi. Importantly, CX-5461 exhibits single agent efficacy in PARPi-resistant HGSOC-PDX. Further, we identify CX-5461-sensitivity gene expression signatures in primary and relapsed HGSOC. Therefore, CX-5461 is a promising therapy alone and in combination therapy with PARPi in HR-deficient HGSOC. CX-5461 is also an exciting treatment option for patients with relapsed HGSOC tumors that have poor clinical outcome.
Please find more details at https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/621623v1